Mobile communications technology has actually been developed and are widely used in the early 1980s, including C-NET system developed in Germany and Portugal, by Siemens, RC-2000 system that was developed in France, NMT system developed in Holland and Scandinavia by Ericsson, and TACS systems that operate in the UK. But the technology is still used in analog to make the system so that the regional character of the system between states with one another is not compatible with each other and cause the user's mobility is limited to a particular area of technology systems (can not roam between countries).
Analog technology is developed, the more incompatible with the development of European society that increasingly dynamic, hence to overcome the limitations, the European countries forming an organization in 1982 which aimed to determine the standards for cellular communications that can be used in all European countries. The organization is called the Group Special Mobile (GSM). This organization pioneered the emergence of digital cellular technology that became known as Global System for Mobile Communications or GSM.
GSM appeared in mid 1991 and finally made mobile telecommunications standard for the whole of Europe by the ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute). GSM operator of a new commercial can be started at the beginning of the last quarter of 1992 due to GSM technology is complex and profound needs assessment to be used as a standard. In September 1992, the standard type approval for mobile phones agreed to consider and put dozens of items in the manufacture GSM testing. At the beginning of its operation, the GSM has been anticipating the number of users very rapidly and the direction of service per area is high, so that the direction of technology development is the DCS GSM (Cellular Digital System) on the 1800 Mhz frequency allocation. With these frequencies, customers will achieve greater capacity per unit cell. In addition, with an area smaller cells will be able to reduce the power of mobile transmit power, so that the radiation hazards that may arise against the organs in the head will be cut. GSM usage then spread to Asia and America, including Indonesia. Indonesia initially using an analog cellular telephone system called AMPS (Advances Mobile Phone System) and the NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone). However, with present and dijadikannnya standard cellular communication system makes an analog system slowly disappearing, not only in Indonesia, but also in Europe. GSM user no longer growing. At the end of 2005, the world's GSM subscribers has reached 1.5 trillion customers. Eventually grow and expand as GSM cellular telecommunications system most widely used around the world. (Mela Dewinta 0606094516)